Sunday, May 24, 2020
Teaching English vocabulary to young learners A crucial component of learning a foreign language is the acquisition of vocabulary. For young learners, the very first words that they acquire could lay the profound basis for a better later learning of the children. This study is intended to investigate the specific application of techniques in teaching English vocabulary to young learners. I strived to investigate the current techniques in teaching vocabulary to young learners and studied the difficulties that teachers encounter during this process. Oral interviews, questionnaire and observation schemes were used as useful instruments for data collection. The questionnaire-based survey aims to scrutinize teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ commonÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Coincidentally, H. Dellar and D. Hocking indicated that progress made from learning grammar most of the time would be much less than that from learning vocabulary. To be short and concise, when comparing the importance of grammar and vocabulary, both mentioned statem ent above show that most of learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s improvement was created when the learner himself learned more words and expressions. It was also emphasized when it came to communicate that Ã¢â¬Å"you can say very little with grammar, but you can say almost anything with wordsÃ¢â¬ (Thornbury , p.13). 2.2. Young learners 2.2.1. Definition The term Ã¢â¬Å"young learnersÃ¢â¬ , according to the author of the book An A-Z of ELT, Thornbury , Ã¢â¬Å"is used to describe children of pre-primary and primary school age, although it is sometimes used to include adolescents as wellÃ¢â¬ (p.250). In the same way, Ã¢â¬Å"young learnersÃ¢â¬ as defined by Sarah Phillips (1993) are Ã¢â¬Å"children of formal schooling (five or six years old) to eleven or twelve years of age.Ã¢â¬ (p.4). Teaching English to young learners, therefore, has a long history: in many multilingual countries, primary school children are taught English as preparation for secondary school, where it is the medium of instruction. In recent years, there has been a phenomenal increase in the teaching of English to young learners, in EFL context as well as in ESL, and in state schoolShow MoreRelatedTeaching English Vocabulary Through Pictures for Young Learners1546 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTeaching English Vocabulary through Pictures for Young Learners INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background All languages consist of words. Languages emerge first as words, both historically, and in terms of the way each of us learned our first and any subsequent languages. Vocabulary plays an important role because it appears in every language skills. Mastering vocabulary is very important for the students who learn English as a foreign language. It is because vocabulary is a key to young learners understandingRead MoreThe Problem With English Language Learners801 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesstudying and learning in core areas is lack of content-related vocabulary. We acknowledge that the most challenging situation is with English language learners (ELLs). This is the reason Texas has adopted the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) to be able to support the ELLs as they learn the required Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS). However, on a large scale, we observe that even some of our students who are native English speakers also sometimes struggle academically. This is becaus eRead MoreThe Theoretical Background Of Visual Aids1510 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfirst section discusses about vocabulary including definitions, its importance in teaching English and some technique in vocabulary teaching. The second section provides an overview of visual aids through three main issues definitions, types, and roles. The next section offers the literature of characteristics of studentÃ¢â¬â¢s elementary school. The last section concludes with a review of previous study related to this field. 2.1. Vocabulary 2.1.1. Definitions of vocabulary This section shows severalRead More Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners Essay1172 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEnglish Language Learners (ELL) require appropriate education in the English language. Reading, writing, listening, pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar are important for an ELL student to learn. Educators should use individualized lesson plans that will cater to each studentÃ¢â¬â¢s abilities and knowledge of the secondary language. An ELL classroom is formed with students who do not have the capability to speak or read English fluently. These students are unable to participate in a mainstream classroomRead MoreThe Language Of English As A Language1460 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEnglish as a language has been designated as having a global ranking (Crystal 1997), (Northrup 2013), (Mckenzie 2010). A language that is deemed as having a global status is clarified by Crystal (2003, p.3) as Ã¢â¬Ëone that achieves a genuinely global status when it develops a special role that is recognised in every countryÃ¢â¬â¢. Due to this prestigious standing that English has attained, it is unsurprising that many are keen to acquire it across the world. This is also supported by Wyse, Andrews and HoffmanRead MoreElls Essay1006 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespopulation, especially with English-language learners in the education system. English-language learners are students who are unable to communicate fluently or learn effectively in English. These students come from a non-English speaking home or background and require specialized instruction in the English language and their academic courses. Educators use a number of terms when referring to English-language learners, limited English proficient (LEP) students, non-native English speakers, language-minorityRead MoreEssay on Building Vocabulary in English Language Learners1053 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesTeachers who work with English Language Learners know that academic language takes longer to achieve proficiency in than does conversational language. On average, ELL students need at least two years to achieve conversational language and, five to nine years to develop academic language proficiency. Many English words ELL students are exposed to in school, they have not yet learned or even heard in their first language, which makes transference of knowledge impossible. The vast differences in theRead MoreLanguage Acquisition Theories : Behaviorism, Linguistic Nativism, Social Interactionism, And Neurobiological Perspective1580 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescomprehend dialect along with the construction and use of terms and sentences along with non-verbal mannerisms in order to communicate with one another (Christie, J. Enz, B., 2011). This paper will provide specific examples of observations in my teaching practice that is related to language acquisition, along with comparing the specific examples and assessing by the discussion of: how students develop language meaning, current practices promote language learning (acquisition) in effective ways, whatRead MoreTeaching English As A Language959 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTheories abound reporting the most effective method of teaching English as a language, and the two methods that people tend to subscribe to are 1) primarily focus on the technical side of the language or 2) primarily focus on the content. Stephen Krashen believed that Ã¢â¬Å"subconscious acquisitionÃ¢â¬ of a language Ã¢â¬Å"is separate from conscious learning and is superior in the long run,Ã¢â¬ as H. Douglas Brown paraphrases in Principles of Language Learning and Teaching (289). As one of his hypotheses of language acquisitionRead MoreThe Importance Of Reading783 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescomparing myself to my peersÃ¢â¬âthe non-struggling readers and learners. Yet, today, I realize and understand that everyone learns differently, at his or her pace. In other words, learning is not a Ã¢â¬Å"one-size fits all.Ã¢â¬ The purpose of this literature review is to briefly summarize three peer reviewed scholarly articles, specifically how the articles taught me how important it is for me to teach with an end goal in mind, especially when it comes to teaching reading to Hispanic and Latino students. Therefore,
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Drugs -Tolerance,Dependence,Addiction and Treatment. There can be a great deal of confusion surrounding the words addiction, physical dependence, and tolerance. People will use these words as if they are referring to the exact thing, but there is a significant difference between them . Misunderstandings about these terms can not only be confusing for the general public but also many in the medical profession. One of the main culprits blamed for this confusion is the fact that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders has chosen to use the word dependency instead of the word addiction and people assume this to mean physical dependency. Drug tolerance is commonly encountered in pharmacology, when a subject s reaction to aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Drug abuse is an increasing epidemic in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. There are so many types of drugs being abused today, both legal and illegal. These drugs affect the human body in many different ways. Drug abuse can lead to addiction. Drug addiction involves the repeated and excessive use of a drug to produce pleasure or escape reality despite its destructive effects. Some medications used to treat pain can be addictive. Addiction is different from physical dependence or tolerance, however. In cases of physical dependence, withdrawal symptoms occur when a substance suddenly is stopped. Tolerance occurs when the initial dose of a substance loses its effectiveness over time. Addiction is a psychological and behavioral response that develops in some people with the use of narcotic pain medicines. People who take a class of drugs called opioids for a long period of time may develop tolerance and even physical dependence. This does not mean, however, that a person is addicted. In general, addiction occurs in only a small percentage of people when narcotics are used under proper medical supervision. The use of and abuse of illegal and prescription drugs are affecting our health, our society, and creating law enforcement problems all across America. Drug usage isShow MoreRelatedEssay about Addiction and the Brain1037 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAddiction and the Brain The ponderance that Brain = Behavior and the inherent ramifications of such proves no more fascinating than when addressed in the context of Addiction and the Brain. Essential to consider is: -what exactly is an addictive/abusive substance (drugs of abuse) -what brain center(s)/chemical(s)are involved -what does it mean to become physiologically dependent -how should the concept of addiction be addressed -how might we use animal models -and whatRead MoreLove Is a Natural Drug1415 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLove Is a Natural Drug John-Mark I. Chambers The University of the West Indies Mona Campus Abstract Love addiction and substance dependence have similar characteristics, namely, the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine, the presence of tolerance and withdrawal symptoms, and the negative influences they have on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Love addiction is similar to addictive drugs such as alcohol, cocaine, marijuana and heroin because of the effects that dopamine have on the addictÃ¢â¬â¢s mind and bodyRead MoreUse And Prescribing Methods Of Opioids1158 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesare taken into account. In one study, conducted by Furlan, Sandoval, Mailis-Gagnon, and Tunks (2006), opioids were effective in the treatment of CNCP overall. However according to David N. Juurlink (2012), more recent and more rigorous studies suggest that opioid use disorders occur in up to one-third of patients on chronic opioid therapy. So abuse and addiction are likely to occur in people taking opioids long term. Overall, evidence on long-term opioid therapy for chronic pain is very limitedRead MoreDr ug Abuse And Its Effects On The Brain1535 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessame. That is not the case. Drugs are a colossal problem nowadays for teenagers and adults, Drugs can alter the brain permanently, and it can be almost impossible to recover from addiction, especially as a teen. Addiction is a chronic relapsing disease that is characterized by compulsive drug seeking and abuse and long lasting chemical changes in the brain. People who are addicted to certain kinds of drugs are lead onto a long and hard path of drug abuse and dependence. Whether or not someone becomesRead MoreAddiction : A Familiar Term For Most Of The World1603 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBehavior Dr. Kelly Bordner April 26, 2015 Addiction Addiction is a familiar term for most of the world. By its simplest definition, addiction is habitual drug use that causes negative effects on the userÃ¢â¬â¢s health and social life despite efforts to stop using (Pinel, J.P. 2013). Drugs have been a part of human society for thousands of years. The quest to alter oneÃ¢â¬â¢s consciousness is not a new one. Millions of people worldwide suffer from various forms of drug addiction. Yet for such a common affliction,Read MoreAccording to the MedilexiconÃ¢â¬â¢s Medical Dictionary, Addiction is Ã¢â¬Å"Habitual psychological or900 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDictionary, Addiction is Ã¢â¬Å"Habitual psychological or physiologic dependence on a substance or practice that is beyond voluntary controlÃ¢â¬ (Nordqvist, 2009). This corresponds to the definition given by the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) that addiction is Ã¢â¬Å"When an individual persists in use of alcohol or other drugs despite problems rel ated to use of the substance, substance dependence may be diagnosed. Compulsive and repetitive use may result in tolerance to the effectRead MoreWarning : Side Effects On Health874 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMethadone study, a misuser articulates experiences with addiction stigma by stating, Ã¢â¬Å"They look at you like youÃ¢â¬â¢re a drug addict and then they look at you like they can treat you any way they want. You know what I mean. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re a drug addict. Well, youÃ¢â¬â¢re lower than I am if you use drugs.Ã¢â¬ (Earnshaw, et. al, 8). Impacts of addiction can be felt by the whole community. Administration of psychoactive medication is a valuable technique of treatment for ailments, but irresponsible use of these substancesRead MoreAddiction : The Problem Of Addiction Essay1198 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAddiction Students stroll in to class, their Venti iced soy vanilla lattes in hand rather than a notebook and pen. Keurig coffeemakers are commonplace in college dorm rooms. Colleges boast the number of Starbucks shops they have on campus. Just a month into the school year, and already many studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ bodies are becoming tolerant to caffeine, needing more and more of it to achieve the desired boost of energy, and if not given their fix, rebelling by causing headaches and irritability. Could itRead MoreHeroin Addiction Essay1446 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntro (Taylor) It has been a debate on whether Heroin Addiction is a disease. There are many reasons that support why this addiction is a disease. Just like a disease, heroin addiction is very hard and what seems to be impossible to cope with. Without the help and some sort of treatment plan many fail to come back to reality and health. As a society, we need to take notice that heroin is incredibly overpowering and help to get treatment to those in need. We need to understand the definition of aRead MoreDrug Abuse And Drug Addiction1257 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Drugs had been existing since the early 15th century and society has confronted drug abuse and addiction ever since. In the modern world, drug abuse has become a problem for many individuals do to traumatic experiences, mental disorders, peer pressure and personal problems. For every addiction there is always a solution, professional assistance can help a drug addict get control of his/her life once again. Drug rehabilitation programs can be essential for drug addicts only if the victims are committed
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(24) " we can at least react\." Freud maintained interests in the subjects of God and religion throughout his long career. Freud considered the practice of religion and religious rites to be some sort of neurological obsession. Taking the concept from Feuerbach, he also saw religious ideology as a projection of infantile wishes. We will write a custom essay sample on FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s View on Religion or any similar topic only for you Order Now If religion was a kind of neurosis, it is marked by an unhealthy dissociation between oneself and reality. If religion was a continuation of the childish tendency to project oneÃ¢â¬â¢s imagination unto reality, it is marked by an abnormal association between oneÃ¢â¬â¢s fantasies and the objective world. Either way, religion is a sickness that needs to be cured. Freud gave the clearest expression of his views on religion in his book The Future of an Illusion. In order to explore FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s conception of religion, we must first clarify certain points. When Freud speaks of religion, he is usually talking about the traditional, fear-based, authoritarian, organized religion. There are other kinds of religion too. For instance, when William James talks about religion in his Varieties of Religious Experience and when Freud talks about religion in his The Future of an Illusion they are referring to wholly different approaches to God. James is talking about mystical experiences, while Freud is indeed talking about infantile beliefs. Unlike JamesÃ¢â¬â¢ profound investigations into sublime spiritual matters, FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s observations are more or less commonsensical. FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s theories of origins of religion are sometimes criticized for being unscientific speculations, but really there is not much of a need for scientific corroboration of FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s views because they are just commonsensical. When one looks objectively at the various religions and religious beliefs in our world, one is bound to reach to conclusions somewhat similar to those of Freud. Freud may have couched his observations in a more scholarly language, but essentially what he is saying is very simple and easily relatable. When he says religious rites are manifestations of obsessive neurosis, he simply means religions are mostly ridiculously lunatic affairs. And when Freud says religions are infantile projections, he means they are simply childish nonsense. It is difficult to come to any other conclusion when we look at the whole phenomenon of organized religion from a rational perspective. Freud mostly has Judeo-Christian tradition in mind when he condemns religion. Though FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s observations could be broadly applicable to many other world religions of the past and the present, they would make most direct sense when we keep the Jewish and Christian religions in mind. FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s main proposition is that religion is a projection of human longings and desires. But desires and longings for what? Ã¢â¬â for security of course. The Future of an Illusion and its sequel Civilization and its Discontents are FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s reflections on the origins and nature of civilization. Freud talks about religion in the context of civilization. Before the advent of civilization, man lived in wilderness. In our modern times, surrounded by the innumerable comforts of science and technology, i. e. , civilization, we may not be able to properly appreciate the fact, but situations of life posed constant threat and continual hardship for wandering groups of early humans, and this was how we lived for literally hundreds of thousands of years. Civilization is relatively a very recent manifestation. Religion in its rudimentary forms most likely predates civilization by tens of thousands of years. Freud constantly ties up religion with civilization since they essentially serve the same function Ã¢â¬â provide security against fearsome, elemental forces of nature. Ã¢â¬Å"The principal task of civilization, its actual raison dÃ¢â¬â¢etre, is to defend us against nature,Ã¢â¬ says Freud, and nobody would dispute this assertion. Now, the principal task of religion too is the same, though it approaches this issue of security from a different angle. And while civilization provides real security, religion provides only imaginary one, nothing more than an illusory feeling. Outside the setting of civilization, the basic question before an individual human being as he tried to live his life and cope with his surroundings was: how to survive, how to Ã¢â¬Å"defend himself against the superior powers of nature, of FateÃ¢â¬ ¦? The first step toward security is what Freud calls, humanization of nature: A great deal is already gained with the first step: the humanization of nature. Impersonal forces and destinies cannot be approached; they remain eternally remote. But if the elements have passions that rage as they do in our own souls, if death itself is not something spontaneous but the violent act of an evil Will, if everywhere in nature there are Beings around us of a kind that we know in our own society, then we ca n breathe freely, can feel at home in the uncannyÃ¢â¬ ¦ This was how the first very primitive religions began, long before the advent of civilization. Say, if civilization began roughly 5 Ã¢â¬â 6000 years ago, and agriculture began some 10 Ã¢â¬â 12000 years ago, there is evidence for religious rites to have taken place as far back as 80,000 years or in fact much earlier, going back to the dim beginnings of the species Homo sapiens. Religion was therefore the first effort of man to establish a rapport with nature. The intention was wholly a noble one Ã¢â¬â to connect with the greater existence Ã¢â¬â but human minds were understandably extremely primitive so long ago in time, their lifestyle was totally brutish, there was no language either, and so instead of a poetic or philosophical reverence for Nature, men could only develop a routine of arbitrary, superstitious rituals in an effort to appease nature. Knowledge of our evolutionary beginnings was not well-developed in FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s time, nevertheless his speculations were based on the intrinsic logic of things and so some of them were neatly corroborated by scientific discoveries that were made much later. Superstitious religious beliefs did not really make man secure, but they at least provided an illusory sense of confidence: We are still defenceless, perhaps, but we are no longer helplessly paralysed; we can at least react. You read "FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s View on Religion" in category "Papers" Perhaps, indeed, we are not even defenceless. We can apply the same methods against these violent supermen outside that we employ in our own society; we can try to adjure them, to appease them, to bribe them, and, by so influencing them, we may rob them of a part of their power. Freud says, Ã¢â¬Å"life and the universe must be robbed of their terrors. This was the big project man was on. However, there was no way man could achieve this at a time when he could not even build a primitive shelter for himself and had to live inside the caves. Even in the modern times, with such fantastic advances in science, we are still far from achieving this. The primitive man could only project beings with whom he co uld relate unto the abstract Nature, and achieve some kind of consolation through such an effort. This was not an altogether futile effort; besides consolation, it could also have led to other practical benefits. A replacement like this of natural science by psychology not only provides immediate relief, but also points the way to a further mastering of the situation. Ã¢â¬ From these very primitive beginnings, religions too went on evolving along with manÃ¢â¬â¢s growing awareness of his world. Freud continues with his logically derived conception of the evolution of religion. Freud has nothing against the way primitive religions evolved, because obviously human kind was in its childhood for all that time. Therefore it was only natural. What Freud is against are the present-day monotheistic religions of the world. Monotheism first evolved after a few thousands of years of civilization. FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s birth religion, Judaism, was one of the pioneers of monotheism. Although the monotheistic religion was a tremendous leap of abstraction over the primitive pantheistic religions, it was still an evolution of the primitive religions. Religion in whatever form, including the deeper spiritual and mystic modes, is a search for security, as is civilization. Whereas civilization has a valid basis, religion continued to be a purely imaginary enterprise. Civilization is a reflection of intelligence, maturity and capability of man, whereas religion is its exact opposite, although civilization and religion have been going together for so long. With monotheism, religion attained a kind of maturity, but unfortunately all the deep childishness still remained with it, being only thinly concealed. Freud remarks the following about the evolution of religion: And thus a store of ideas is created, born from manÃ¢â¬â¢s need to make his helplessness tolerable and built up from the material of memories of the helplessness of his own childhood and the childhood of the human race. This store of childish ideas continued to serve as a basis for the supposedly monotheistic religions too. Religion turned out to be an essentially childish pursuit. The parallels between religious tendencies and child psychology run deep. A very young child lives in a space where reality and dream/imagination constantly merge. In other words, he is not capable of clearly distinguishing between reality and imagination. For him, fairies in the stories he read could be as real as his friends at school. Freudian psychoanalysis traces all the mental complexes of an adult person to his childhood. This is the essential modality of psychoanalysis. The tendency of people to believe in religious doctrines is thus traced back by Freud to the tendency of children to confuse between reality and imagination. One needs this tendency or faculty first to indulge in any kind of mythmaking which is at the core of all religions, whether monotheistic or pantheistic Ã¢â¬â this capacity to take oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own and collective mental projections for reality. Once this is in place, a person can go on projecting whatever suits him. A human child is so utterly helpless if he had to live on his own in this enormously complex world, unlike juvenile animals which come more or less Ã¢â¬ËprepackagedÃ¢â¬â¢. The childÃ¢â¬â¢s overwhelming need is security. This security is provided by his parents. The child realizes his total dependence on the parents; consequently, the attachment to the father-figure or the mother-figure has gone very deep in the collective psyche of humanity. Security is very deeply associated with the father figure, especially in Western cultures and the ancient civilizations they evolved from. And although the child grows up into a man, and becomes much more capable and stronger in fending for himself, he still remains weak and helpless in face of many situations of life. The search for security continues, and the need for greater security is ever present. A benevolent and compassionate God watching over human affairs from his heaven Ã¢â¬â if he existed Ã¢â¬â would have been the ultimate protection for humans. But even if he does not exist, and no one has ever seen him, it need not present much of a problem because humans possess the faculty of confusing reality with imagination, and can easily make their own gods as well their own God. This faculty was particularly pronounced in people who lived in the early stages of civilization Ã¢â¬â which corresponded to the intermediate stages of evolution of religion. These men belonging to the ancient cultures of the world created thousands of gods and elaborate mythological stories featuring them Ã¢â¬â all of them being nothing more than products of their fertile but childish imagination. In the subsequent ages, men became more mature, their rational faculties developed, and they sought to make meaning of their world in a more focused manner, instead of just seeking security and comfort. This development was helped by the fact that enough of security and comfort were present already, therefore a higher need to make sense of his world developed in man. Religious cults continued to emerge and evolve; they were not simply arbitrary mythological stories anymore but contained more coherent narratives that answered philosophical questions and provided a framework of meaning to human existence. These latter day religions were apparently much more sophisticated than most of the primitive religions, nevertheless they were still highly childish and nonsensical. Science is a legitimate way of seeking comfort and security, and philosophy is a legitimate way of seeking meaning of human existence, but religion is a pseudo way of seeking all these three. Religion is like a drug that can provide a false sense of happiness and elation without in any way actually leading to greater happiness and joy. That was way why Freud was so much opposed to the existence of religions, they essentially belonged to a childish, outmoded phase of human evolution, even the apparently more sophisticated ones. Religions are nothing but an illusion. They provide comfort, solace, security, meaning and significance to human life Ã¢â¬â but they only seem to do so, in reality they only provide fake substitutes for all these. An illusion means an appearance without substance, and it is a very apt word to describe religions. There is nothing wrong in seeking greater meaning and security in our lives, in fact this search is what makes us human, this is a healthy need of human existence. But there is a much more prevalent neurotic version of this need which is easily satisfied by mere appearances and falsities, and which is easily catered for by the religions of the world. Religions are an outcome of neurosis, they are a disease of the human mind, and Freud genuinely hoped that religions could be cured by the spread of psychoanalysis some day in the future. How to cite FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s View on Religion, Papers
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
An examination of culturally divided societies and whether consociational democracy could work in these countries. This paper presents a detailed examination of consociational models and whether they would work in deeply divided societies. The writer explores the models being used in several other places including the Netherlands and Switzerland. The reader is first given a detailed explanation of how such a model operates and what its positive aspects are. Then the writer touches on some of the negative aspects. Finally the entire idea is brought to the door of deeply divided societies and the writer explains whether or not the model can be applied to those divided societies successfully. Every society likes to entertain the belief that they have the truth in the best societal practice. If asked each government will tell the inquirer that their form of government and their societal system is the most well thought out and best system there is. We will write a custom essay sample on Divided Societies or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Part of this may come from the need to believe they are providing the best possible system for those who live within its boundaries, and part of it may be a true belief that it is the best because they are comfortable with its operation. The truth is often somewhere in the middle and the systems could always use some tweaking to make them as perfect as their representatives would have them sound.
Wednesday, April 1, 2020
Waiting Line and Queuing Theory Solutions Paper Students should realize that different organizations place different values on customer waiting time. Ask students to consider different scenarios, from a drive-through restaurant to a doctors office to a registration line in their college or motor vehicle office. It becomes clear that organizations place different values on their customers time (with most colleges and Dams unfortunately placing minimal cost on waiting time). Teaching Suggestion 14. 3: use of Poisson and Exponential Probability Distributions to Describe Arrival and Service Rates. These two distributions are very common in basic models, but students should not take their appropriateness for granted. As a project, ask students to visit a bank or drive-through restaurant ND time arrivals to see if they indeed are Poisson distributed. Note that other distributions (such as exponential, normal, or Erelong) are often more valid. Teaching Suggestion 14. 4: Balking and Reneging Assumptions, Note that most queuing models assume that balking and reneging are not permitted. Since we know they do occur in supermarkets, what can be done? This is one of many places to prepare students for the need for simulation, the topic of the next chapter. Teaching Suggestion 14. 5: use of Queuing Software The Excel KM and KM for Windows queuing software modules are among the easiest models n the program to use since there are so few inputs. Yet students should be reminded of how long it would take to produce the programs in Chapter 14 by hand. Teaching Suggestion 14. 6: Importance Of LLC and Was in Economic Analysis. Although many parameters are computed for a queuing study, the two most important ones are LLC and Was when it comes to an actual cost analysis. We will write a custom essay sample on Waiting Line and Queuing Theory Solutions specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Waiting Line and Queuing Theory Solutions specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Waiting Line and Queuing Theory Solutions specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Teaching Suggestion 14. 7: Teaching the New England Foundry Case. Here is a tip for this very teachable case. About half the students who tackle the case forget that time walking to the counter must be noted and that the return time also needs to be added. ALTERNATIVE EXAMPLES Alternative Example 14. 1: A new shopping mall is considering setting up an information desk manned by one employee. Based on information obtained from similar information desks, it is believed that people Will arrive at the desk at the rate of 20 per hour. It takes an average of 2 minutes to answer a question. It is assumed that arrivals are Poisson and answer times are exponentially distributed. A. Find the probability that the employee is idle. B. Find the proportion of the time that the employee is busy. C. Find the average number of people receiving and waiting to receive information. D. Find the average number f people waiting in line to get information. E. Find the average time a person seeking information spends at the desk. F. Find the expected time a person spends just waiting in line to have a question answered. ANSWER: a. B. C. L 20/hour 1 0. 6 20 30 20 1 2030 30/hour . 33 33% 2 people q (1 (20)2 1. 33 people ) 3030 20) 1 0. 1 hour 30 20 Wq 20 30130 20) 0. 0667 hours Alternative Example 14. 2: In Alternative Example 14. 1 the information desk employee earns $5/hour. The cost of waiting time, in terms of customer unhappiness with the mall, is 512/hour of time spent waiting in line. Vind the total expected costs over an 8hour day. . The average person waits 0. 0667 hour and there are 160 arrivals per day. So total waiting time (1 10. 67 hours @ $12/hour, implying a waiting cost of $128/day. b. The salary cost is $40/day. C. Total costs are $128 $40 $168/day. 5/12/08 1:01 PM Page 218 CHAPTER 14 WAITING LINE AND QUEUING THEORY MODELS Alternative Example 14. 3: A new shopping mall is considering setting up an information desk manned by two employees. Based on information obtained from similar information desks, it is believed that people will arrive at the desk distributed. A. Find the proportion of the time that the employees are idle. B. Find he average number Of people waiting in the system. C. Pin the expected time 3 person spends waiting in the system. ANSWER: (servers). A. P 20/hour, 30/hour, M 2 open channels SOLUTIONS TO DISCUSSION QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS 14-1. The waiting line problem concerns the question of finding the ideal level of service that an organization should provide. The three components of a queuing system are arrivals, waiting line, and service facility. 14-2, The seven underlying assumptions are: 1. Arrivals are FIFO. 2. There is no balking or reneging. 3. Arrivals are independent. 4 Arrivals are Poisson. 5. Service times are independent. . Service times are negative exponential. 7. Average service rate exceeds average arrival rate, 14-3, The seven operating characteristics are: 1. Average number to customers in the system (L) 2. Average time spent in the system (W) 3, Average number in the queue (LLC) 4. Average time in the queue (Was) 5. Utilization factor ( ) 6. Percent idle time (Pop) 7. Probability there are more than K customers in the system 1 (20 10! Icily 123 911 J 1312 II (6020) J b. / 3012 (1 2012 12 J 20 30 (J 1, 600121 L 3/ 420 23 112 812 912 3 people p 4 144. If the service rate is not greater than the arrival rate, an infinite queue will eventually build up. 4-5. First-in, first-out (FIFO) is often not applicable. Some examples are (I) hospital emergency rooms, (2) an elevator, (3) an airplane trip, (4) a small store where the shopkeeper serves whoever can get his or her attention first, (5) a computer system set to accept priority runs, (6) a college registration system that allows juniors and seniors to register ahead of freshmen and sophomores, (7) a restaurant that may seat a party Of 2 before a party Of 4 even though the latter group arrived earlier, (8) a garage that repairs cars with minor problems before it works on major overhauls. 4-6. Examples Of finite ensuing situations include (1) a firm that has only 3 or 4 machines that need servicing, (2) a small airport at which only 10 or 15 flights land each day, (3) a classroom that seats only 30 students for class, (4) a physician who has a limited number of patients, and (5) a hospital ward with only 20 patients who need care. 14-7. A. Barbershop: usually a single-channel, multiplicities system (if there is more than one barber). Arrivals Waiting line Service customers wanting haircuts seated customers who informally recognize who arrived first among them haircut, style, shampoo, and so forth: it service involves barber, then shampooing, hen manicurist, it becomes a multiphase system 3 her. 80 0. 0375 Alternative Example 14. 4: Three students arrive per minute at a coffee machine that dispenses exactly 4 cups/minute at a constant rate. Describe the operating system parameters. ANSWER: 3/millet 2 4/minute 9 4 3) was 1. 125 people in queue on average 3 0. 375 minutes in the queue waiting alls 1. 254 1. 87 people in the system 1 1 WA _375 4 0. 625 minutes in the system 5/12/08 1:01 PM Page 219 b. Car wash: usually either a single-channel, single-server system, or else a system with each service bay having its own queue. Arrivals Waiting time Service arty cars or trucks cars in one line (or more lines if there are service parallel wash systems); always FIFO either multiphase (if car first vacuumed, then soaped, then sent through automatic cleaner, then dried by hand) or single-phase if all automatic or performed by one person 14-8. The vitiating time cost should be based on time in the queue in situations where the customer does not mind how long it takes to complete service once the service starts. The classic example of this is waiting in line for an amusement park ride. Waiting time cost should be based on the time in the system when the entire time is important to the customer. When a computer or an automobile is taken into the shop to be repaired, the customer is Without use Of the item until the service is finished. In such a situation, the time in the system is the relevant time. 4-9. The use Of Poisson to describe arrivals: a. Cafeteria: probably not. Most people arrive in groups and eat at the same time. B. Barbershop: probably acceptable, especially on a weekend, in which case people arrive at the same rate all day long. C. Hardware store: okay. D. Dentists office: usually not. Patients are most likely scheduled at IS. To 30. Minute intervals and do not arrive randomly. , College class: number of students come in groups at the beginning of class period; very few arrive during the class or very early before class. F. Movie theater: probably not if only one movie is shown (if there are four or more auditoriums each playing a different movie simultaneously, it may be okay). Patrons all tend to arrive in batches S to 20 minutes before a show, c. Laundromat: basically a single-channel, multiplexer, two-phase system. Arrivals Waiting line Service customers with dirty clothes usually first-come, first-served in terms of selecting an available machine first phase consists of washing clothes n washing machines; second-phase is again queuing for the first available drying machine d.
Saturday, March 7, 2020
Rhetorical Analysis Essays (1269 words) - Biology, Charles Darwin Kennedy Sims @02839811 English March 1 st . 2019 Rhetorical Analysis Biology is a subject that has always intrigued me. It is the major of studies that I took up at Howard University and in some way, it is what I want to use in my everyday life at work. The Origin of Species by Charles Darwin is one of the most prominent books in the biology field. It is biological literature considered to be the foundation for Evolutionary Biology. It introduces the scientific theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through the process of natural selection. This book contains scientific evidence to back up his claim and is aimed at the general public and secular individuals as an alternative to what the church believed and as an explanation of the origin of life. Charles Darwin used this book The Origin of Species to express his findings on how life came to be and explain the phenomenon of genetic similarities in different animal types. The book submitted evidence from an expedition in the 1830s and explanation for all his findings as well as names and details about the process. His explanation produced a body of evidence that the diversity of life came by common descent through a branching pattern of evolution. In the book, Darwin shares the concept of natural selection or "Survival of the fittest" as putting in his book on page 63 and argues that species are susceptible to change because of natural selection. This theory helps as a basis of knowledge further in the history of biology and as a biology major is something that I have studied at Howard University. The phenomena of natural selection are taught in grade schools as the reasoning of evolutionary change and it is all thanks in part to Charles Darwin and his book. Darwin do es note that he is not the first person to notice an evolutionary change but his way of processing it and his reasoning for why is what makes him different. Darwin did not write his book to be solely for academia and although he is a wildly respected and achieved academic his findings affected the world and he knew that. Knowing this he sets up the book in a very readable way and is very explanatory in what he says. He even goes as far as to give a disclaimer and say " I cannot here give references and authorities for my several statements; and I must trust to the reader reposing some, confidence in my accuracy" as to say that he is just presenting the research that he has found and drawing his conclusion and it is up to the reader whether or not they believe him and want to believe this conclusion based on the evidence presented. This book was wildly accepted as a reasonable explanation for evolution and the process of genetic changes by academics and seculars alike. The early parts of the book explain his theory in detail while the ending part is more of a defense against any critics that could or have to arouse to doubt his th eory. When writing this book, I feel the main purpose of Darwin was education and knowing what really happens on the planet we inhabit. He wanted to spread the knowledge that he had found and wanted to showcase what has happened before and what will essentially happen again. When writing this Darwin faced a lot of criticism and skepticism from people who did not believe what he believed to be so true. The church was a big roadblock in the face of evolution because of their belief system. Darwin's beliefs were labeled as Darwinism and something that should not be believed in or associated with if you were a part of the church. His theory of descent with modification and the belief that people could have evolved from another species goes against everything the church was teaching and therefore to them was incorrect and even blasphemous. He also takes the time to address and inconsistencies that might be in his findings and do not relate with other scientific findings. He goes in depth about the inconsistencies and why they are there and
Thursday, February 20, 2020
Political and Social Analysis of America Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words
Political and Social Analysis of America - Essay Example This took place from the earlier 15th Century. Moreover, the 15th century saw a great increase in African immigrants, who the explorers brought in to America as slaves (Vigdor 184). However, after the end of slave trade, these Africans settled in America to raise the Afro-American race. Immigration to the US still exists even today. Besides, the US also has illegal immigrants. This manuscript will look into these US immigrants, considering the factors and impacts of their immigrants. Factors that Led to the US immigration settlements Various factors led to the immigrants settling in the US. For instance, due to the increase in industrialization, most of the immigrantsÃ¢â¬â¢ home nations failed to provide them with employment opportunities (Coates 83). Conversely, the US provided these immigrants with better working conditions and increased wages. Consequently, these immigrants had to settle in the US. Additionally, some immigrants settled in America as a result of natural calamitie s. They left their home nations as they escaped from disasters such famine, drought and other adverse weather conditions. For instance, most Irish immigrants to the US came because of the potato famine. Some American government policies also resulted in an upsurge of these immigrants. In the mid 1800, the US government passed a bill that gave the settlers over 150 acres of land. This resulted in an increase in the number of immigrants, since their driving force was the free land on offer. Many immigrants settled in America based on their own free will. However, some former immigrants came to the US through force. For instance, the African American settlers came into America as slaves that provided inexpensive labor and also helped during wars. Moreover, some illegal immigrants settled in America because of political unrest and peace in the US. Nations such as China, Germany, Cuba, and Russia and others faced various forms of political instabilities and their citizens had to move to the US where there were peace and better policies (Vigdor 185). Moreover, the US had enacted regulations that encouraged foreigners into settling in the land, since they were in serious need of both skillful and non-skillful employees to drive their growing economy. Effects of the Immigrations to America Positive Effects Some natives liked the idea of the immigrants settling in the US, citing that they provided cheap labor that steered economic growth (Coates 83). However, others opposed this idea, claiming that the immigrants were the core reasons for their labor problems. As a result, there were positive as well as negative consequences that resulted from the immigrations. Among the positive impacts of these migrations included the cheap and readily available workforce (Coates 84). The immigrants provided inexpensive skilled and unskilled labor, thereby improving the productivity of most companies, resulting from lower production costs. This in turn led to reduction of the prices of goods and services, and thus it improves the lives of both American natives as well as other immigrants. Besides, immigrants have resulted in a significant population increase in America. Despite the fact that an increased population leads to other negative implications, the huge population also comes with its advantages. For instance, the large population provides the US with a steady market for the goods and