Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Film Analysis of Jean-Pierre Jeunet Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Film Analysis of Jean-Pierre Jeunet - Essay Example The near investigation of the two motion pictures encourages us to comprehend the details utilized by Jean-Pierre Jeunet in setting up the topics for his films. Postulation Statement: Jean â€Pierre Jeunet utilizes the assistance of definite narrating and uses true to life approaches for the foundation of the subjects in his motion pictures. The true to life approach utilized by him contrasted in different viewpoints as indicated by the subject picked by him. A Very Long Engagement: A Very Long Engagement by Jean-Pierre Jeunet is another ace class made by him. The film depends on French foundation and a magnificent bit of narrating approach was trailed by the executive to set the story on pace. The chief has returned the assistance of blaze to portray a piece of his story and his class of blending the two times falls under an exceptional type (Hurley). Jeunet has been effective in delineating the recollections of the French war by utilizing staggering area and the utilization of lo ng shots through the sloppy fields. The long shots is panned at a quick pace with the assistance of Long cranes which connoted the pace of the fight. The decision of extraordinary area all through France assists with getting a handle on the enthusiasm of the watchers. Areas like Paris, Brittany and Poitiers were utilized in the film (A Very Long Engagementâ (2004)). The fight scenes utilized in the film should be enlivened from the film Saving Private Ryan. Despite the fact that the film is war based, yet Jeunet has been fruitful in delineating an all around created and a fair segment of the story as an adoration epic. The screenplay utilized was ideally adjusted and Jeunet utilized his lord class to join the two and convey an ace class. In the war scenes the utilization of sound has been fundamentally and painstakingly used to give the watchers a crude sentiment of the progressing of a war. The sounds utilized in the arrangement are of high caliber. The chief places the story in c lose to home vision as opposed to attempting to delineate it as a chronicled epic. The utilization of shading pictures from the beginning of the story causes the watchers to land into authenticity or better named as true to life impressionism. Toward the end watchers are left with multi tinted recollections. The camera edges utilized by Jeunet were likewise particularly basic. Wide calculated close ups of Tautou is utilized. The central length and the stature of the camera were painstakingly concentrated to get the best perspective on the shots of Tautou. The chief uses a blend of cold hues in portraying the wartime channels and the warm shading to expound the harmony time. The fundamental hint of shading utilized in the film was that of the shading earthy colored while a fix of greenish earthy colored was utilized in the war field. The shading utilized is monochromatic and spots of different hues are utilized. In the locations of the channel, the face depicting the fighters is mean t to have an unexpected picture in comparison to the remainder of the appearances utilized in the film. The point was to give a markup recognize in the appearances (Cinematic impressionism).The utilization of voice over has been deliberately dealt with in the film and its dynamism in the manner of speaking was fundamentally valued. The sound blend utilized in the film is additionally staggering. The nature of sound is sublime as the downpour drops falling in the layers of the troopers appeared to be practically genuine. The utilization of supplemental material in the film has additionally been firmly dealt with (Schager and Gonzalez). The tones utilized by and large in the film are ridiculous and frequently extends from brilliant to sepia to dark as per the shifted circumstances and the plots utilized in the movi

Thursday, August 20, 2020

Introducing the Class of 2013 Merritt 13, Carlos 13, Edward 13, and John 13

Introducing the Class of 2013 Merritt 13, Carlos 13, Edward 13, and John 13 The MIT Class of 2013 has officially arrived! With this day upon us, we conclude the series Introducing the Class of 2013. Merritt 13 Carlos 13 Edward 13 John 13 Scott 13 Cory 13 Edner 13 Jeremy 13 Bee 13 Henrique 13 Chika 13 Qinxuan 13 Trevor 13 Chandler 13 and Taylor 13 Jonte 13 Sean 13 Terence 13 Christy 13 North Cross student going to M.I.T. in the Fall By Jarett Henshaw Published: June 1, 2009 There are components of people and components of the universe that are not directly expressed in the observable properties of the universe, said Merritt Boyd Meet Merritt Boyd, the smartest student at North Cross and maybe even all of Roanoke. So smart in fact, that he got accepted into all nine schools he applied to including Stanford, Harvard, Cornell, and Berkeley. He decided to go to college at M.I.T. in Boston. The culture of the students I think is something that really drew me there, said Boyd. Some say hes a genius. He doesnt think so, but plans on studying astrophysics at M.I.T. had to get him to explain exactly what that is. Astrophysics is basically the large scale structure of the universe. Ive always liked to take the telescope out at night and look at the stars so I think astrophysics would be a lot of fun to study, said Boyd. Boyd says hes looking forward to studying at such a challenging School. I would rather challenge myself than be challenged, said Boyd. Boyds mom says today is bittersweet because shes not looking forward to him leaving Roanoke in the fall. Im very very proud but very sad that hes going to leave. Im worried about whos going to fix our technology problems when he does. Anytime the TV breaks or a computer problems comes up, Merritt fixes it, said Donna Boyd, Merritts mother. Something shell have to figure out in August because Boyd will be seven-hundred miles away, studying things that are a million miles from home. Scholarships lift the weight off hard-working shoulders Carlos Garay: Gates Millennium Scholar Culture shock gives way to passion for learning By Jason Hidalgo June 6, 2009 Just moving to a new apartment can be tough for some folks. But moving to another country? Thats an adjustment on a whole different level. Its a lesson Carlos Garay learned a decade ago when he first arrived in the United States as a 7-year-old from Colombia. At the time, the young Garay wasnt quite ready for the culture shock he would experience, even among fellow Latinos. I did not know English, and the way I spoke Spanish was different from the way Mexicans spoke Spanish, so I was picked on, Garay said. It made me lonely, and I just closed up. In the years that followed, Garay would redirect the loneliness he felt into a passion for education. That passion would ultimately pay off for the 17-year-old Galena High School student, who now finds himself the recipient of a major scholarship while also being accepted to one of the most prestigious schools in the world. Last April, Garay was notified about his selection as a Gates Millennium Scholar, an award funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The scholarship was just the second in a string of good news for Garay, who was also notified by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in December that he had been accepted to the school and qualified for a full financial aid award*. When I started reading On behalf of the Admissions Committee, I thought, Oh great, Im going to be rejected,' Garay said. So when I got to the part that said I was actually accepted, I was like, Hey, wait a minute and read it all over again. I started jumping up and down screaming. With his education now financially secure through graduate school, Garay plans to get a jump start by attending a summer program at MIT. Garay said he will be majoring in mechanical engineering with a minor in material science engineering. I really like being able to apply what I know, and, basically, thats what mechanical engineering is, Garay said. Its not developing some grand theory thats only applicable in the next 100 years. Its about creating things that work very soon and can hopefully help everyone one day. Garay, who currently lives with his mom and 15-year-old brother, said his experience is a testament to the opportunities available in the United States and how anyone can achieve their dreams if they work hard and set their mind to it. Garay said he is especially grateful to his mom for everything she has done for him. I dont think she really understands what MIT is, Garay said. But she was very happy. She didnt go to college and she sacrificed herself completely so I could get to this point. An appreciation for education wasnt the only thing Garay developed during his younger, lonelier days. No longer the recluse he was back then, Garay also learned the importance of having a social support network, which is one of his top priorities once he reaches MIT. Its a lesson that has become even more significant for Garay after hearing stories of promising students in prestigious schools such as MIT and Harvard who crash and burn due to personal issues. Everyone accepted at schools like MIT has the intellectual capacity to succeed, Garay said. But a lot of times, people dont succeed for other reasons. I want to deal with those problems early on so I dont have to deal with them later in life. One way Garay hopes to do well is by being well-adjusted and not putting too much pressure on himself. Garay admits that his drive to be accepted at a good college or university made him too hard on himself sometimes. In high school, I felt I had to be No. 1 all the time, Garay said. Now Im getting used to the idea that even if Im average at MIT, I can be happy with that. Thats actually a big change for me. [Please note: All of MITs financial aid is based on financial need; there are no merit scholarships. Reporters are often confused about this. Matt] Active MTHS Senior Gets Full Scholarship to MIT. * People | Tue, 04/07/2009 By Leslie Truluck Edward Obropta, Jr. and his sister Alanna Joslin at Romp Apparel in Stone Harbor. COURT HOUSE Edward Obropta, Jr., 18, a senior at Middle Township High School, has an extreme schedule. Not only does he manage to earn exceptional grades in advanced placement and honors courses, he is also very active with extra curricular activities and community service all while running his own family business. His efforts have paid off as he recently received a full scholarship* to MIT, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in Cambridge. Although not certain exactly what he will major in, Obropta enjoys math and would like to build rockets or design planes or something crazy. Obropta plays second singles on the high schools tennis team and has been team captain for the past two years. Class of 2009 has continually voted him class president for all four years of his high school career. During his time representing his class, he helped to initiate a canned-food drive and plan a winter formal dance in which profits were donated to area churches. Involved in several school spirit activities like building homecoming float and prom committee, for the past two years Obropta also listens to students voice concerns as vice president of student council. I dont know how it all adds up but it works. Im always doing something, he said. Ranking number one in a class of 271, he said he received informal notification that he will be class Valedictorian. Among his many academic accolades, Obropta is a member of Future Business Leaders of America, National Honor Society, the school math team and science league and the NJ Envirathon, an event in which high school students compete in eco-friendly exercises. Its like an athletic competition but its about the outdoors, he said. Obropta plays tenor saxophone as a member of the high schools Jazz ensemble, which plays for area nursing homes and Dennisville Middle School. It doesnt happen all at once, he said. Obropta manages to communicate with other student government members throughout the school day, play with the jazz band one night a week and practice tennis three hours everyday. The coolest thing, he said, is Romp Apparel, a store he manages on 96th Street in Stone Harbor with his sister, Alanna Joslin, 28, who is in charge of female clothing while Obropta concentrates on the male side of the store. Their parents, Ann and Edward, Sr., have their own screen-printing and embroidery business, which is all done in-house, literally right from the Obroptas home. Since 2005, when Obropta was only 14-years-old, he has designed the clothing brand, which is focused on a young adult surf and skate demographic with a mini half-pipe right in the store. Its very youth-oriented. We let customers sign their names on the wall when they make a purchase, he said. Its so popular we are running out of space. While the business is open seasonally and responsibilities are shared with his sister, Obropta said he also does a lot of behind the scenes work, like attending fashion conventions in Las Vegas to buy the seasons latest looks. When he is not involved in school and work endeavors, his interests are eclectic, including skim boarding, quad riding, hiking, canoeing and outdoors activities with his family and volunteering at the Cape May Tennis Club. I always like to do a lot of everything. Id get bored doing the same all the time. Working hard and having it pay off feels good, he said. Obropta credits his success to his family being extremely supportive. My parents dont force me to do things, he said. As a matter of fact, he said they occasionally suggest he take it easy. As with designing clothing, Obropta enjoys visualizing things and making them become a reality. When I see it, I can make it happen, he said. Hoggard senior has chance to travel abroad in linguistics, mathematics competitions Hoggard High School: Problem solver Student excels in national linguistics, math competitions Published: Monday, June 1, 2009 at 3:08 p.m. By Carolyn Bowers, StarNews Correspondent John Berman, a senior at Hoggard High School, knows what it is to be molistic. And he also knows how to conjugate the verb shunk. Of course neither of these words appears in any English dictionary because they arent real words. They are clues to solving problems in the North American Computational Linguistics Olympiad, and getting the right answers to problems like these helped Berman place sixth out of more than 1,000 students in the 2009 national competition. The placement has won him the opportunity to represent the United States at the Seventh International Linguistics Olympiad to be held in Poland in late July. Berman said he finds the idea of going to Poland very, very exciting. I cant wait. Recently, the trip got even more exciting when Berman learned he is one of 12 winners of another national competition the United States of America Mathematical Olympiad. This competition required solving six problems in nine hours over two days. This test was the third in a series of increasingly challenging mathematical contests. More than 220,000 students worldwide competed in the first round. Of these, about 10,000 were invited to compete in the American Invitational Mathematics Examination. That contest narrowed the field to 525 who were invited to participate in the prestigious USAMO. On June 8, the 12 USAMO winners will be honored at an awards ceremony in Washington, D.C., after which they will take the team selection test to determine which six of the 12 students will be on the U.S. International Mathematical Olympiad team in Bremen, Germany. If Berman is one of the six, he will first compete in Germany in the Mathematical Olympiad in July and then go on to Poland for the Linguistics Olympiad. While obviously gifted in both disciplines, Berman isnt wavering about his preference. My main interest is math, he said. Im going to MIT to get a Ph.D. in math and teach in college. He already has a good head start, having completed several math courses at the University of North Carolina Wilmington while still in high school. According to his father, David Berman, a computer science professor at UNCW, John has been playing with computer games and puzzles since he was about 6 years old. I would just throw questions or puzzles out for John to think about without any expectations, he said. Play is a lot of the discovery process.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Teaching Vocabulary to Young English Learners - 3602 Words

Teaching English vocabulary to young learners A crucial component of learning a foreign language is the acquisition of vocabulary. For young learners, the very first words that they acquire could lay the profound basis for a better later learning of the children. This study is intended to investigate the specific application of techniques in teaching English vocabulary to young learners. I strived to investigate the current techniques in teaching vocabulary to young learners and studied the difficulties that teachers encounter during this process. Oral interviews, questionnaire and observation schemes were used as useful instruments for data collection. The questionnaire-based survey aims to scrutinize teachers’ common†¦show more content†¦Coincidentally, H. Dellar and D. Hocking indicated that progress made from learning grammar most of the time would be much less than that from learning vocabulary. To be short and concise, when comparing the importance of grammar and vocabulary, both mentioned statem ent above show that most of learner’s improvement was created when the learner himself learned more words and expressions. It was also emphasized when it came to communicate that â€Å"you can say very little with grammar, but you can say almost anything with words† (Thornbury , p.13). 2.2. Young learners 2.2.1. Definition The term â€Å"young learners†, according to the author of the book An A-Z of ELT, Thornbury , â€Å"is used to describe children of pre-primary and primary school age, although it is sometimes used to include adolescents as well† (p.250). In the same way, â€Å"young learners† as defined by Sarah Phillips (1993) are â€Å"children of formal schooling (five or six years old) to eleven or twelve years of age.† (p.4). Teaching English to young learners, therefore, has a long history: in many multilingual countries, primary school children are taught English as preparation for secondary school, where it is the medium of instruction. In recent years, there has been a phenomenal increase in the teaching of English to young learners, in EFL context as well as in ESL, and in state schoolShow MoreRelatedTeaching English Vocabulary Through Pictures for Young Learners1546 Words   |  7 PagesTeaching English Vocabulary through Pictures for Young Learners INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background All languages consist of words. Languages emerge first as words, both historically, and in terms of the way each of us learned our first and any subsequent languages. Vocabulary plays an important role because it appears in every language skills. Mastering vocabulary is very important for the students who learn English as a foreign language. It is because vocabulary is a key to young learners understandingRead MoreThe Problem With English Language Learners801 Words   |  4 Pagesstudying and learning in core areas is lack of content-related vocabulary. We acknowledge that the most challenging situation is with English language learners (ELLs). This is the reason Texas has adopted the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) to be able to support the ELLs as they learn the required Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS). However, on a large scale, we observe that even some of our students who are native English speakers also sometimes struggle academically. This is becaus eRead MoreThe Theoretical Background Of Visual Aids1510 Words   |  7 Pagesfirst section discusses about vocabulary including definitions, its importance in teaching English and some technique in vocabulary teaching. The second section provides an overview of visual aids through three main issues definitions, types, and roles. The next section offers the literature of characteristics of student’s elementary school. The last section concludes with a review of previous study related to this field. 2.1. Vocabulary 2.1.1. Definitions of vocabulary This section shows severalRead More Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners Essay1172 Words   |  5 PagesEnglish Language Learners (ELL) require appropriate education in the English language. Reading, writing, listening, pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar are important for an ELL student to learn. Educators should use individualized lesson plans that will cater to each student’s abilities and knowledge of the secondary language. An ELL classroom is formed with students who do not have the capability to speak or read English fluently. These students are unable to participate in a mainstream classroomRead MoreThe Language Of English As A Language1460 Words   |  6 PagesEnglish as a language has been designated as having a global ranking (Crystal 1997), (Northrup 2013), (Mckenzie 2010). A language that is deemed as having a global status is clarified by Crystal (2003, p.3) as ‘one that achieves a genuinely global status when it develops a special role that is recognised in every country’. Due to this prestigious standing that English has attained, it is unsurprising that many are keen to acquire it across the world. This is also supported by Wyse, Andrews and HoffmanRead MoreElls Essay1006 Words   |  5 Pagespopulation, especially with English-language learners in the education system. English-language learners are students who are unable to communicate fluently or learn effectively in English. These students come from a non-English speaking home or background and require specialized instruction in the English language and their academic courses. Educators use a number of terms when referring to English-language learners, limited English proficient (LEP) students, non-native English speakers, language-minorityRead MoreEssay on Building Vocabulary in English Language Learners1053 Words   |  5 PagesTeachers who work with English Language Learners know that academic language takes longer to achieve proficiency in than does conversational language. On average, ELL students need at least two years to achieve conversational language and, five to nine years to develop academic language proficiency. Many English words ELL students are exposed to in school, they have not yet learned or even heard in their first language, which makes transference of knowledge impossible. The vast differences in theRead MoreLanguage Acquisition Theories : Behaviorism, Linguistic Nativism, Social Interactionism, And Neurobiological Perspective1580 Words   |  7 Pagescomprehend dialect along with the construction and use of terms and sentences along with non-verbal mannerisms in order to communicate with one another (Christie, J. Enz, B., 2011). This paper will provide specific examples of observations in my teaching practice that is related to language acquisition, along with comparing the specific examples and assessing by the discussion of: how students develop language meaning, current practices promote language learning (acquisition) in effective ways, whatRead MoreTeaching English As A Language959 Words   |  4 PagesTheories abound reporting the most effective method of teaching English as a language, and the two methods that people tend to subscribe to are 1) primarily focus on the technical side of the language or 2) primarily focus on the content. Stephen Krashen believed that â€Å"subconscious acquisition† of a language â€Å"is separate from conscious learning and is superior in the long run,† as H. Douglas Brown paraphrases in Principles of Language Learning and Teaching (289). As one of his hypotheses of language acquisitionRead MoreThe Importance Of Reading783 Words   |  4 Pagescomparing myself to my peers—the non-struggling readers and learners. Yet, today, I realize and understand that everyone learns differently, at his or her pace. In other words, learning is not a â€Å"one-size fits all.† The purpose of this literature review is to briefly summarize three peer reviewed scholarly articles, specifically how the articles taught me how important it is for me to teach with an end goal in mind, especially when it comes to teaching reading to Hispanic and Latino students. Therefore,

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Drugs -Tolerance,Dependence,Addiction and Treatment

Drugs -Tolerance,Dependence,Addiction and Treatment. There can be a great deal of confusion surrounding the words addiction, physical dependence, and tolerance. People will use these words as if they are referring to the exact thing, but there is a significant difference between them . Misunderstandings about these terms can not only be confusing for the general public but also many in the medical profession. One of the main culprits blamed for this confusion is the fact that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders has chosen to use the word dependency instead of the word addiction and people assume this to mean physical dependency. Drug tolerance is commonly encountered in pharmacology, when a subject s reaction to a†¦show more content†¦Drug abuse is an increasing epidemic in today’s society. There are so many types of drugs being abused today, both legal and illegal. These drugs affect the human body in many different ways. Drug abuse can lead to addiction. Drug addiction involves the repeated and excessive use of a drug to produce pleasure or escape reality despite its destructive effects. Some medications used to treat pain can be addictive. Addiction is different from physical dependence or tolerance, however. In cases of physical dependence, withdrawal symptoms occur when a substance suddenly is stopped. Tolerance occurs when the initial dose of a substance loses its effectiveness over time. Addiction is a psychological and behavioral response that develops in some people with the use of narcotic pain medicines. People who take a class of drugs called opioids for a long period of time may develop tolerance and even physical dependence. This does not mean, however, that a person is addicted. In general, addiction occurs in only a small percentage of people when narcotics are used under proper medical supervision. The use of and abuse of illegal and prescription drugs are affecting our health, our society, and creating law enforcement problems all across America. Drug usage isShow MoreRelatedEssay about Addiction and the Brain1037 Words   |  5 PagesAddiction and the Brain The ponderance that Brain = Behavior and the inherent ramifications of such proves no more fascinating than when addressed in the context of Addiction and the Brain. Essential to consider is: -what exactly is an addictive/abusive substance (drugs of abuse) -what brain center(s)/chemical(s)are involved -what does it mean to become physiologically dependent -how should the concept of addiction be addressed -how might we use animal models -and whatRead MoreLove Is a Natural Drug1415 Words   |  6 PagesLove Is a Natural Drug John-Mark I. Chambers The University of the West Indies Mona Campus Abstract Love addiction and substance dependence have similar characteristics, namely, the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine, the presence of tolerance and withdrawal symptoms, and the negative influences they have on a person’s life. Love addiction is similar to addictive drugs such as alcohol, cocaine, marijuana and heroin because of the effects that dopamine have on the addict’s mind and bodyRead MoreUse And Prescribing Methods Of Opioids1158 Words   |  5 Pagesare taken into account. In one study, conducted by Furlan, Sandoval, Mailis-Gagnon, and Tunks (2006), opioids were effective in the treatment of CNCP overall. However according to David N. Juurlink (2012), more recent and more rigorous studies suggest that opioid use disorders occur in up to one-third of patients on chronic opioid therapy. So abuse and addiction are likely to occur in people taking opioids long term. Overall, evidence on long-term opioid therapy for chronic pain is very limitedRead MoreDr ug Abuse And Its Effects On The Brain1535 Words   |  7 Pagessame. That is not the case. Drugs are a colossal problem nowadays for teenagers and adults, Drugs can alter the brain permanently, and it can be almost impossible to recover from addiction, especially as a teen. Addiction is a chronic relapsing disease that is characterized by compulsive drug seeking and abuse and long lasting chemical changes in the brain. People who are addicted to certain kinds of drugs are lead onto a long and hard path of drug abuse and dependence. Whether or not someone becomesRead MoreAddiction : A Familiar Term For Most Of The World1603 Words   |  7 PagesBehavior Dr. Kelly Bordner April 26, 2015 Addiction Addiction is a familiar term for most of the world. By its simplest definition, addiction is habitual drug use that causes negative effects on the user’s health and social life despite efforts to stop using (Pinel, J.P. 2013). Drugs have been a part of human society for thousands of years. The quest to alter one’s consciousness is not a new one. Millions of people worldwide suffer from various forms of drug addiction. Yet for such a common affliction,Read MoreAccording to the Medilexicon’s Medical Dictionary, Addiction is â€Å"Habitual psychological or900 Words   |  4 PagesDictionary, Addiction is â€Å"Habitual psychological or physiologic dependence on a substance or practice that is beyond voluntary control†(Nordqvist, 2009). This corresponds to the definition given by the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) that addiction is â€Å"When an individual persists in use of alcohol or other drugs despite problems rel ated to use of the substance, substance dependence may be diagnosed. Compulsive and repetitive use may result in tolerance to the effectRead MoreWarning : Side Effects On Health874 Words   |  4 PagesMethadone study, a misuser articulates experiences with addiction stigma by stating, â€Å"They look at you like you’re a drug addict and then they look at you like they can treat you any way they want. You know what I mean. You’re a drug addict. Well, you’re lower than I am if you use drugs.† (Earnshaw, et. al, 8). Impacts of addiction can be felt by the whole community. Administration of psychoactive medication is a valuable technique of treatment for ailments, but irresponsible use of these substancesRead MoreAddiction : The Problem Of Addiction Essay1198 Words   |  5 PagesAddiction Students stroll in to class, their Venti iced soy vanilla lattes in hand rather than a notebook and pen. Keurig coffeemakers are commonplace in college dorm rooms. Colleges boast the number of Starbucks shops they have on campus. Just a month into the school year, and already many students’ bodies are becoming tolerant to caffeine, needing more and more of it to achieve the desired boost of energy, and if not given their fix, rebelling by causing headaches and irritability. Could itRead MoreHeroin Addiction Essay1446 Words   |  6 PagesIntro (Taylor) It has been a debate on whether Heroin Addiction is a disease. There are many reasons that support why this addiction is a disease. Just like a disease, heroin addiction is very hard and what seems to be impossible to cope with. Without the help and some sort of treatment plan many fail to come back to reality and health. As a society, we need to take notice that heroin is incredibly overpowering and help to get treatment to those in need. We need to understand the definition of aRead MoreDrug Abuse And Drug Addiction1257 Words   |  6 Pages Drugs had been existing since the early 15th century and society has confronted drug abuse and addiction ever since. In the modern world, drug abuse has become a problem for many individuals do to traumatic experiences, mental disorders, peer pressure and personal problems. For every addiction there is always a solution, professional assistance can help a drug addict get control of his/her life once again. Drug rehabilitation programs can be essential for drug addicts only if the victims are committed

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Freud’s View on Religion Free Essays

string(24) " we can at least react\." Freud maintained interests in the subjects of God and religion throughout his long career. Freud considered the practice of religion and religious rites to be some sort of neurological obsession. Taking the concept from Feuerbach, he also saw religious ideology as a projection of infantile wishes. We will write a custom essay sample on Freud’s View on Religion or any similar topic only for you Order Now If religion was a kind of neurosis, it is marked by an unhealthy dissociation between oneself and reality. If religion was a continuation of the childish tendency to project one’s imagination unto reality, it is marked by an abnormal association between one’s fantasies and the objective world. Either way, religion is a sickness that needs to be cured. Freud gave the clearest expression of his views on religion in his book The Future of an Illusion. In order to explore Freud’s conception of religion, we must first clarify certain points. When Freud speaks of religion, he is usually talking about the traditional, fear-based, authoritarian, organized religion. There are other kinds of religion too. For instance, when William James talks about religion in his Varieties of Religious Experience and when Freud talks about religion in his The Future of an Illusion they are referring to wholly different approaches to God. James is talking about mystical experiences, while Freud is indeed talking about infantile beliefs. Unlike James’ profound investigations into sublime spiritual matters, Freud’s observations are more or less commonsensical. Freud’s theories of origins of religion are sometimes criticized for being unscientific speculations, but really there is not much of a need for scientific corroboration of Freud’s views because they are just commonsensical. When one looks objectively at the various religions and religious beliefs in our world, one is bound to reach to conclusions somewhat similar to those of Freud. Freud may have couched his observations in a more scholarly language, but essentially what he is saying is very simple and easily relatable. When he says religious rites are manifestations of obsessive neurosis, he simply means religions are mostly ridiculously lunatic affairs. And when Freud says religions are infantile projections, he means they are simply childish nonsense. It is difficult to come to any other conclusion when we look at the whole phenomenon of organized religion from a rational perspective. Freud mostly has Judeo-Christian tradition in mind when he condemns religion. Though Freud’s observations could be broadly applicable to many other world religions of the past and the present, they would make most direct sense when we keep the Jewish and Christian religions in mind. Freud’s main proposition is that religion is a projection of human longings and desires. But desires and longings for what? — for security of course. The Future of an Illusion and its sequel Civilization and its Discontents are Freud’s reflections on the origins and nature of civilization. Freud talks about religion in the context of civilization. Before the advent of civilization, man lived in wilderness. In our modern times, surrounded by the innumerable comforts of science and technology, i. e. , civilization, we may not be able to properly appreciate the fact, but situations of life posed constant threat and continual hardship for wandering groups of early humans, and this was how we lived for literally hundreds of thousands of years. Civilization is relatively a very recent manifestation. Religion in its rudimentary forms most likely predates civilization by tens of thousands of years. Freud constantly ties up religion with civilization since they essentially serve the same function – provide security against fearsome, elemental forces of nature. â€Å"The principal task of civilization, its actual raison d’etre, is to defend us against nature,† says Freud, and nobody would dispute this assertion. Now, the principal task of religion too is the same, though it approaches this issue of security from a different angle. And while civilization provides real security, religion provides only imaginary one, nothing more than an illusory feeling. Outside the setting of civilization, the basic question before an individual human being as he tried to live his life and cope with his surroundings was: how to survive, how to â€Å"defend himself against the superior powers of nature, of Fate†¦? The first step toward security is what Freud calls, humanization of nature: A great deal is already gained with the first step: the humanization of nature. Impersonal forces and destinies cannot be approached; they remain eternally remote. But if the elements have passions that rage as they do in our own souls, if death itself is not something spontaneous but the violent act of an evil Will, if everywhere in nature there are Beings around us of a kind that we know in our own society, then we ca n breathe freely, can feel at home in the uncanny†¦ This was how the first very primitive religions began, long before the advent of civilization. Say, if civilization began roughly 5 – 6000 years ago, and agriculture began some 10 – 12000 years ago, there is evidence for religious rites to have taken place as far back as 80,000 years or in fact much earlier, going back to the dim beginnings of the species Homo sapiens. Religion was therefore the first effort of man to establish a rapport with nature. The intention was wholly a noble one — to connect with the greater existence — but human minds were understandably extremely primitive so long ago in time, their lifestyle was totally brutish, there was no language either, and so instead of a poetic or philosophical reverence for Nature, men could only develop a routine of arbitrary, superstitious rituals in an effort to appease nature. Knowledge of our evolutionary beginnings was not well-developed in Freud’s time, nevertheless his speculations were based on the intrinsic logic of things and so some of them were neatly corroborated by scientific discoveries that were made much later. Superstitious religious beliefs did not really make man secure, but they at least provided an illusory sense of confidence: We are still defenceless, perhaps, but we are no longer helplessly paralysed; we can at least react. You read "Freud’s View on Religion" in category "Papers" Perhaps, indeed, we are not even defenceless. We can apply the same methods against these violent supermen outside that we employ in our own society; we can try to adjure them, to appease them, to bribe them, and, by so influencing them, we may rob them of a part of their power. Freud says, â€Å"life and the universe must be robbed of their terrors. This was the big project man was on. However, there was no way man could achieve this at a time when he could not even build a primitive shelter for himself and had to live inside the caves. Even in the modern times, with such fantastic advances in science, we are still far from achieving this. The primitive man could only project beings with whom he co uld relate unto the abstract Nature, and achieve some kind of consolation through such an effort. This was not an altogether futile effort; besides consolation, it could also have led to other practical benefits. A replacement like this of natural science by psychology not only provides immediate relief, but also points the way to a further mastering of the situation. † From these very primitive beginnings, religions too went on evolving along with man’s growing awareness of his world. Freud continues with his logically derived conception of the evolution of religion. Freud has nothing against the way primitive religions evolved, because obviously human kind was in its childhood for all that time. Therefore it was only natural. What Freud is against are the present-day monotheistic religions of the world. Monotheism first evolved after a few thousands of years of civilization. Freud’s birth religion, Judaism, was one of the pioneers of monotheism. Although the monotheistic religion was a tremendous leap of abstraction over the primitive pantheistic religions, it was still an evolution of the primitive religions. Religion in whatever form, including the deeper spiritual and mystic modes, is a search for security, as is civilization. Whereas civilization has a valid basis, religion continued to be a purely imaginary enterprise. Civilization is a reflection of intelligence, maturity and capability of man, whereas religion is its exact opposite, although civilization and religion have been going together for so long. With monotheism, religion attained a kind of maturity, but unfortunately all the deep childishness still remained with it, being only thinly concealed. Freud remarks the following about the evolution of religion: And thus a store of ideas is created, born from man’s need to make his helplessness tolerable and built up from the material of memories of the helplessness of his own childhood and the childhood of the human race. This store of childish ideas continued to serve as a basis for the supposedly monotheistic religions too. Religion turned out to be an essentially childish pursuit. The parallels between religious tendencies and child psychology run deep. A very young child lives in a space where reality and dream/imagination constantly merge. In other words, he is not capable of clearly distinguishing between reality and imagination. For him, fairies in the stories he read could be as real as his friends at school. Freudian psychoanalysis traces all the mental complexes of an adult person to his childhood. This is the essential modality of psychoanalysis. The tendency of people to believe in religious doctrines is thus traced back by Freud to the tendency of children to confuse between reality and imagination. One needs this tendency or faculty first to indulge in any kind of mythmaking which is at the core of all religions, whether monotheistic or pantheistic — this capacity to take one’s own and collective mental projections for reality. Once this is in place, a person can go on projecting whatever suits him. A human child is so utterly helpless if he had to live on his own in this enormously complex world, unlike juvenile animals which come more or less ‘prepackaged’. The child’s overwhelming need is security. This security is provided by his parents. The child realizes his total dependence on the parents; consequently, the attachment to the father-figure or the mother-figure has gone very deep in the collective psyche of humanity. Security is very deeply associated with the father figure, especially in Western cultures and the ancient civilizations they evolved from. And although the child grows up into a man, and becomes much more capable and stronger in fending for himself, he still remains weak and helpless in face of many situations of life. The search for security continues, and the need for greater security is ever present. A benevolent and compassionate God watching over human affairs from his heaven – if he existed – would have been the ultimate protection for humans. But even if he does not exist, and no one has ever seen him, it need not present much of a problem because humans possess the faculty of confusing reality with imagination, and can easily make their own gods as well their own God. This faculty was particularly pronounced in people who lived in the early stages of civilization – which corresponded to the intermediate stages of evolution of religion. These men belonging to the ancient cultures of the world created thousands of gods and elaborate mythological stories featuring them — all of them being nothing more than products of their fertile but childish imagination. In the subsequent ages, men became more mature, their rational faculties developed, and they sought to make meaning of their world in a more focused manner, instead of just seeking security and comfort. This development was helped by the fact that enough of security and comfort were present already, therefore a higher need to make sense of his world developed in man. Religious cults continued to emerge and evolve; they were not simply arbitrary mythological stories anymore but contained more coherent narratives that answered philosophical questions and provided a framework of meaning to human existence. These latter day religions were apparently much more sophisticated than most of the primitive religions, nevertheless they were still highly childish and nonsensical. Science is a legitimate way of seeking comfort and security, and philosophy is a legitimate way of seeking meaning of human existence, but religion is a pseudo way of seeking all these three. Religion is like a drug that can provide a false sense of happiness and elation without in any way actually leading to greater happiness and joy. That was way why Freud was so much opposed to the existence of religions, they essentially belonged to a childish, outmoded phase of human evolution, even the apparently more sophisticated ones. Religions are nothing but an illusion. They provide comfort, solace, security, meaning and significance to human life — but they only seem to do so, in reality they only provide fake substitutes for all these. An illusion means an appearance without substance, and it is a very apt word to describe religions. There is nothing wrong in seeking greater meaning and security in our lives, in fact this search is what makes us human, this is a healthy need of human existence. But there is a much more prevalent neurotic version of this need which is easily satisfied by mere appearances and falsities, and which is easily catered for by the religions of the world. Religions are an outcome of neurosis, they are a disease of the human mind, and Freud genuinely hoped that religions could be cured by the spread of psychoanalysis some day in the future. How to cite Freud’s View on Religion, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Divided Societies free essay sample

An examination of culturally divided societies and whether consociational democracy could work in these countries. This paper presents a detailed examination of consociational models and whether they would work in deeply divided societies. The writer explores the models being used in several other places including the Netherlands and Switzerland. The reader is first given a detailed explanation of how such a model operates and what its positive aspects are. Then the writer touches on some of the negative aspects. Finally the entire idea is brought to the door of deeply divided societies and the writer explains whether or not the model can be applied to those divided societies successfully. Every society likes to entertain the belief that they have the truth in the best societal practice. If asked each government will tell the inquirer that their form of government and their societal system is the most well thought out and best system there is. We will write a custom essay sample on Divided Societies or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Part of this may come from the need to believe they are providing the best possible system for those who live within its boundaries, and part of it may be a true belief that it is the best because they are comfortable with its operation. The truth is often somewhere in the middle and the systems could always use some tweaking to make them as perfect as their representatives would have them sound.